PRODUCERS OF PHYTOTOXINS IN BEECH STANDS BIOCENOSES

M. Melnychuk, A. Likhanov, A. Kliuvadenko, N. Voloshchuk

Abstract


It was found that with the Fagus sylvatica introduction to the ecosystem of oak-hornbeam forests in the eastern Ukrainian woodlands drastic reduction in phytocenosis species diversity is observed, which is caused not by a low-light conditions, but by the additive effect of abiotic and biotic factors complex, among them the leading is active production of phytotoxic extralites by Penicillium micromycetes genus. From the soil of artificial Fagus sylvatica stands isolated 3 strain of P. canescens, which synthesizing phytotoxic exometabolites. Under the condition of direct contact with plants roots of test cultures extralites inhibit their growth, cause hyperplasia of the cortex parenchyma, degradation of DNA in apical meristem cells nucleuses, initiate necrotisation of tissues. In protoplasts of apical meristem root cells of Allium cepa bulbs during plants growing in the soil of beech stands intense chromatin degradation, destruction of nuclear membranes and indistinctive for this species intensive luminescence of cytoplasm are revealed, which is probably caused by the action of phytotoxins. This fact has great scientific and practical interest and requires more detailed studies.


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